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Items related to The Emergence of Romanticism. Nicholas V. The Emergence of Romanticism. Publisher: Oxford University Press Inc , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Synopsis About this title Although he is primarily known as a historian of Russia, Nicholas Riasanovsky has long been a student of European Romanticism. Review : "A stimulating and satisfying contribution to European intellectual history. Buy New Learn more about this copy. About AbeBooks. Other Popular Editions of the Same Title. Search for all books with this author and title.
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Stock Image. In Russia , the principal exponent of Romanticism is Alexander Pushkin. Mikhail Lermontov attempted to analyze and bring to light the deepest reasons for the Romantic idea of metaphysical discontent with society and self, and was much influenced by Lord Byron. Both the poets would die in duels of honor. The poet Fyodor Tyutchev was also an important figure of the movement in Russia, and was heavily influenced by the German Romantics.
Romanticism played an essential role in the national awakening of many Central European peoples lacking their own national states, particularly in Poland , which had recently lost its independence to Russia when its army crushed the Polish Rebellion under the reactionary Nicholas I. Revival of ancient myths, customs and traditions by Romantic poets and painters helped to distinguish their indigenous cultures from those of the dominant nations Russians, Germans, Austrians, Turks, etc.
Patriotism, nationalism, revolution and armed struggle for independence also became popular themes in the arts of this period. They emphasized heroic simplicity and their fervent landscape descriptions of an already-exotic mythicized frontier peopled by "noble savages" was similar to the philosophical theory of Jean-Jacques Rousseau , like Uncas in Cooper's The Last of the Mohicans, for example.
There also are picturesque elements in Washington Irving's essays and travel books. Edgar Allan Poe 's tales of the macabre and his balladic poetry were more influential in France than at home, but the romantic American novel is fully developed in Nathaniel Hawthorne 's atmosphere and melodrama.
But by the s, psychological and social realism was competing with romanticism. The poetry which Americans wrote and read was all romantic or heavily influenced by it until the rise of modernism in s. The poetry of Emily Dickinson —nearly unread in her own time—and Herman Melville 's novel Moby-Dick show the lingering influence of romantic themes, even as they evoked a more realistic and sometimes deeply psychological and philosophical view of the world.
As elsewhere England , Germany , France , American literary Romanticism had its counterpart in the visual arts, most especially in the exaltation of untamed America found in the paintings of the Hudson River School.
The Emergence of Romanticism - Nicholas V. Riasanovsky - Google книги
In the twentieth century, Russian-American writer Ayn Rand called herself a romantic, and thought she might be a bridge from the Romantic era to an eventual esthetic rebirth of the movement. In , E. By the early twentieth century, the sense that there had been a decisive break with the musical past led to the establishment of the nineteenth century as "The Romantic Era," and as such it is referred to in the standard encyclopedias of music.
Some aspects of Romanticism are already present in eighteenth-century music. The heightened contrasts and emotions of Sturm und Drang seem a precursor of the Gothic in literature, or the sanguinary elements of some of the operas of the period of the French Revolution. The libretti of Lorenzo da Ponte for Mozart , and the eloquent music the latter wrote for them, convey a new sense of individuality and freedom. In Beethoven, perhaps the first incarnation since the Renaissance of the artist as hero, the concept of the Romantic musician begins to reveal itself—the man who, after all, morally challenged the Emperor Napoleon himself by striking him out from the dedication of the Symphony no.
Beethoven's use of tonal architecture in such a way as to allow significant expansion of musical forms and structures was immediately recognized as bringing a new dimension to music.
The 19th Century : Romanticism in Art and Literature
The later piano music and string quartets, especially, showed the way to a completely unexplored musical universe. The writer, critic and composer Hoffmann was able to write of the supremacy of instrumental music over vocal music in expressiveness, a concept which would previously have been regarded as absurd.
Hoffmann himself, as a practitioner both of music and literature, encouraged the notion of music as 'programmatic' or telling a story, an idea which new audiences found attractive, however, irritating it was to some composers for example, Felix Mendelssohn. New developments in instrumental technology in the early nineteenth century—iron frames for pianos, wound metal strings for string instruments—enabled louder dynamics, more varied tone colors, and the potential for sensational virtuosity.
Such developments swelled the length of pieces, introduced programmatic titles, and created new genres such as the free standing overture or tone-poem, the piano fantasy, nocturne and rhapsody, and the virtuoso concerto, which became central to musical Romanticism. Enriched timbre and color marked the early orchestration of Hector Berlioz in France, and the grand operas of Giacomo Meyerbeer. It is the period of to , which must be regarded as the true age of Romanticism in music—the age of the last compositions of Beethoven d.
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Now that people are able to listen to the work of Mendelssohn d. After this period, with Chopin and Paganini dead, Liszt retired from the concert platform at a minor German court, Wagner effectively in exile until he obtained royal patronage in Bavaria, and Berlioz still struggling with the bourgeois liberalism which all but smothered radical artistic endeavor in Europe, Romanticism in music was surely past its prime—giving way, rather, to the period of musical romantics. Romantic nationalism—the argument that each nation had a unique individual quality that would be expressed in laws, customs, language, logic, and the arts—found an increasing following after Some of these ideals, linked to liberal politics, had been exemplified in Beethoven's antipathy to Napoleon's adoption of the title of emperor, and can be traced through to the musical patriotism of Schumann, Verdi, and others.
For these composers and their successors the nation itself became a new and worthy theme of music. Some composers sought to produce or take part in a school of music for their own nations, in parallel with the establishment of national literature. Many composers would take inspiration from the poetic nationalism present in their homeland. This is evident in the writings of Richard Wagner, especially after , but can be clearly seen in Russia, where the Kuchka handful of nationalist composers gathered around Mily Balakirev , including Modest Mussorgsky , Alexander Borodin , and Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov.
These composers were concerned about the enormous influence of German music in Russia , and they largely resented the founding of the conservatoires in Moscow and Saint Petersburg by the brothers Nikolai and Anton Rubinstein, which they believed would be Trojan horses for German musical culture however, Russian romantic music is today now closely identified with Anton's favorite pupil, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Yet Arnold Schoenberg 's later spare style had its roots in rich freely chromatic atonal music evolving from his late Romantic style works, for example the giant polychromatic orchestration of Gurrelieder; and Igor Stravinsky 's originally controversial ballets for Sergei Diaghilev seem to us far less controversial today when we can understand their descent from Rimsky-Korsakov.
One of Romanticism's key ideas and most enduring legacies is the assertion of nationalism, which became a central theme of Romantic art and political philosophy.
Romanticism in France
From the earliest parts of the movement, with their focus on development of national languages and folklore , and the importance of local customs and traditions, to the movements which would redraw the map of Europe and lead to calls for self-determination of nationalities. Early Romantic nationalism was strongly inspired by Rousseau , and by the ideas of Johann Gottfried von Herder , who, in , argued that geography formed the natural economy of a people and shaped their customs and society.
The nature of nationalism changed dramatically, however, after the French Revolution , with the rise of Napoleon , and the reactions in other nations.
Napoleonic nationalism and republicanism were, at first, inspirational to movements in other nations: Self-determination and a consciousness of national unity were held to be two of the reasons why France was able to defeat other countries in battle. But as the French Republic became Napoleon's Empire, Napoleon became not the inspiration for nationalism, but the objection to it. In Prussia , the development of spiritual renewal as a means to engage in the struggle against Napoleon was argued by, among others, Johann Gottlieb Fichte a disciple of Immanuel Kant.
The word Volkstum , or nationality, was coined in German as part of this resistance to the now conquering emperor. Fichte expressed the unity of language and nation in his thirteenth address "To the German Nation" in