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David Ludden provides a comprehensive historical framework for the understanding of regional diversity of agrarian South Asia. Adopting a long-term view, he treats South Asia not as a single civilization territory, but as a patchwork of agrarian regions, with their own social, cultural and political histories. He traces these histories from medieval times to the present. A David Ludden provides a comprehensive historical framework for the understanding of regional diversity of agrarian South Asia.
As a comparative synthesis of the literature on agrarian regimes in South Asia, this will be a valuable resource for students of agrarian and regional history, as well as comparative world history. Get A Copy. Hardcover , pages.
- The New Cambridge History of India - Wikipedia.
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More Details Original Title. New Cambridge History of India. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. All Languages. More filters. Sort order. Pseudoerasmus Econ History Only rated it really liked it Feb 23, Foppe added it Aug 08, Inna marked it as to-read Jan 22, Arun Menon added it Jun 14, Jonathan marked it as to-read Sep 19, Alec Rowell marked it as to-read Jan 29, Heather added it Apr 23, India has some of the earliest literature in the world, beginning with Sanskrit, which may be the oldest literature in any Indo-European language.
The Rig Veda is the oldest of the four Vedas , long religious texts composed in an early form of Sanskrit some time late in the second century B.
It was followed by three other Vedas , all liturgical in character, and then by the principal Upanishads during the eighth through fifth centuries B. The first significant secular document in Sanskrit was a sophisticated grammar that fixed the structure of the language, probably in the fourth century B. Then, during the reign of Chandragupta Maurya, the text of the great epic Mahabharata , the world's longest poem, was established around B. About B. Both epics incorporated material from extant folklore. By roughly the third century B. It was soon to become the most influential body of literature in the eastern half of Asia and has remained so to the present day, especially in Chinese and Japanese translations.
In that era the image of the social structure of India was codified by two books. During the late fourth century Kautilya, who is said to have been the prime minister Chanakya, wrote the Arthasastra , a Treatise on the Good , which was rediscovered in Shortly thereafter came the compilation of Manu's Laws Manusmrti. This treatise on religious law and social obligation described in detail a society, possibly a utopian one, in which there were four caste blocks, the varna , each of which had its own occupation, status, and religious duties.
This book continued to exercise an immeasurable influence on Indian society for the next two thousand years and the varna model is still a popular image of Hindu caste society. Around C.
India's Two Hegemonies
While its history is shrouded, it set the stage for an outpouring of medieval poetry in Tamil, a Dravidian language. Some of this work was devotional, but much was secular in its appeal, including the first known work of Indian women writers. The most famous example of this poetry was the Purananuru , an anthology of four hundred poems praising Tamil rulers. Equally important, the Kural was a collection of moral maxims compiled by Tiruvalluvar in perhaps the third and fourth centuries.
It has been likened to a Tamil Koran. At about the same time, there was a flowering of Sanskrit drama in the northerly parts of India. In the fourth or fifth century lived the greatest Sanskrit poet, Kalidasa. The best known plays that have survived from this era are Shakuntala and The Little Clay Cart , the former written by Kalidasa and the latter a comedy also perhaps written by him.
During the Middle Ages, science and philosophy flourished in Sanskrit texts. Perhaps the best known, if the least scientific, work was the Kama Sutra or a treatise on love by Vatsyayana, who wrote it in a legal style of Sanskrit in about the third century.
The Middle Ages witnessed an outpouring of religious and philosophical literature not just in Sanskrit, which was still the prime liturgical and scholarly language, but also in a number of regional languages. Logic, metaphysics, devotional poetry, and commentary developed over the centuries. In the period — there appeared an important new philosophical literature in Karnataka, beginning with the Kavirajamarga. This was Jain A farmer leans under the burden of a harvest as it is carried to the top of a building in Zanskar Valley, Ladakh.
At the end of the twelfth century Lilavati was written by Nemichandra, the first novel in that language. It was followed by other allegorical novels, as well as Kesiraja's grammar of medieval Kannada. Around , another Dravidian literature, in Telugu, made its debut with the grammarian Nannaya Bhatta and the poet Nannichoda. At about that time the Malayalam language became differentiated from Tamil. A century later the oldest known manuscript was written in Bengali. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries Mukundaraj became the first man to write poetry in Marathi.
The Empire of Clouds in north-east India
Early in the fifteenth century two poets brought Bengali literature into prominence: Chandidas and Vidyapati, with the latter writing in Sanskrit as well as Bengali. Contemporary with them were two Telugu poets, Srinatha and Potana, as well as the best-loved Hindi poet, Kabir — Kabir wrote in a medieval regional language closely related to Sanskrit. Although Kabir was a low-caste Hindu, he drew inspiration from Sufism and criticized the caste system, ritualism, and idolatry. He was followed in by the first important Muslim poet of India, Mohamed of Jais who wrote the allegorical poem Padmavat in Hindi.
Contemporary with Kabir was one of the greatest of woman poets, the Rajput Mirabai, who wrote in both Hindi and Gujarati. A century before her, Manichand had written an important historical novel in Gujarati. In the Hindi version of the Ramayana ,by Tulsidas, appeared it was to be a forerunner of numerous versions of the Ramayana in regional languages. At that time there was a strong Persian cultural influence in some parts of the country. One ruler of the Muslim province of Golconda later Hyderabad was Mohammed Quli Qutub Shah, a poet who wrote in both Persian and Urdu, which was a new form of Hindi containing many Persian words and written in an Arabic script.
In , the Adi Granth , the canonical text of the Sikh religion, was established in Punjabi. Thirty years later there appeared, also in northwestern India, a book in Urdu prose, the Sab Ras of Vajhi. In more southern parts of the subcontinent the middle of the seventeenth century also saw the writing of the Kannada poem Rajasekhara , by Sadakshara Deva, the works of the Gujarati storyteller Premanand — , and the influential Marathi poems of Tukaram — With the arrival of the printing press in south India, Tamil literature underwent a renaissance.
His lengthy diary has been published in Tamil, French, and English. Another outstanding Tamil poet and bard was Tyagaraja.
Achin Vanaik, India's Two Hegemonies, NLR , July–August
By the time of Nazir, the British hegemony in India was well established, and along with it went the spread of regional printing presses, the opening of the first modern universities, and the increasing influence of European literary forms, especially in the English language. This influence is evident even in writers who published in their native languages. Bengal in particular experienced a great literary and intellectual renaissance in both English and Bengali, including the novels of Bankim Chandra Chatterji and India's first Nobel Prize Winner, the poet and dramatist Rabindranath Tagore.
A parallel literary renaissance occurred in Hindi at the beginning of the twentieth century, with the first novels by Premchand. Tamil also began to produce novels with an English influence. The twentieth century saw a continuation of this modernization, fueled by the ease of publication and the increasing size of the reading public. An unexpected development during that century was the emergence of numerous world-class and prizewinning novelists writing in English, and often not residing in India.